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1NT110DUCTOHY   ESSAY.                                 155
close to the crest of. the range, have an elevation of about
2000 feet, and, are surrounded by hills, the highest, of which
are about 1000 feet higher. Abu, on a spur to the east of the
watershed, is said to attain 4500 feet.
Another range of hills, connected with the Arawali to the
south of Udepur, passes by Nimach, and runs parallel with and
west of the Chambal, as far as its junction with the Banas.
The elevation of Nimach is 1476 feet, and as the surrounding
hills are very low, they are perhaps not much higher than
2000 feet. The level of the country gradually sinks towards
the north-east. The elevation of Agra above the sea is 670
feet, and the junction of the Jumna and Chainbal is a few feet
Rajwara is on the whole a barren province, a great part of
it being hilly and unimprovable, but the valleys are occasion-
ally rich and very fertile. The climate is drier than that of
Malwah, and becomes very arid in the northern parts. On
the western slopes of the Arawali hills there is a considerable
rain-fall during the south-west monsoon, but the whole coun-
try to the eastward is sheltered by that range from the effects
of the monsoon, so -that the average rain-fall at Agra is only
19 or 20 inches. The plain of Marwar is even more arid, and
the desert which stretches towards the Indus is as dry and
sterile as the worst parts x)f Sindh. The mean temperature of
Eajwara is higher than might have been anticipated from its
elevation and latitude. At Ajmir and IN asirabad it is 76.
The vegetation of Rajwara is not known in detail, but it
probably differs little from that of the Dekhan and upper
Gangetic valley. The forest-clad slopes of the Arawali. range
ja-e so dry for nine months of the year, that only those trees
wJ* -h. are tolerant of great dryness can grow ,there. They
may therefore be expected to present a vegetation similar to
that of the hills of Ghijerat, or the western and drier Hima-
laya, where the climate is sinilar. The summit of Abu,
like that of Parasnath, produces some epiphytical Orchidea
and other humid types, but their number is no doubt incon-